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中级阅读(1) Unit 2 补充练习 Fast reading exercises  

2016-09-19 16:56:05|  分类: 2015级中级阅读 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Passage One

Many people in deaf communities around the world use sign languages as their primary means of communication. These communities include both deaf and hearing people who converse in sign language. But for many deaf people, sign language serves as their primary, or native language, creating a strong sense of social and cultural identity.

 

Sign language can also be used as an alternative means of communication by hearing people. For example, in the United States during the 19th century, groups of Native Americans in the Plains who spoke different languages used a sign language now known as Plains Indian Sign Talk to communicate with each other.

 

Languages can be conveyed in different ways known as modalities. The most important modalities are speech, writing, and sign. Modality should not be confused with language, however. English and Navajo, for example, share a modality — speech — although they are different languages. The same is true for sign languages. Even though British Sign Language (BSL) and American Sign Language (ASL) share the signed modality, they are two distinct languages. English, Navajo, BSL, and ASL constitute four distinct languages.

 

Sign languages exhibit the same types of variation that spoken languages do. For example, sign languages have dialects that vary from region to region. In the United States, many African Americans in the South who communicate through sign language use a variant of standard ASL, just as many African Americans might communicate through their own vernacular English in speech. In Switzerland, there are five geographic dialects of Swiss German Sign Language with slight variations that derive from regional schools for the deaf. In Dublin, Ireland, where boys and girls attend different schools, the sign language used by deaf boys has a distinctly different vocabulary from that used by deaf girls. Although girls learn the boys’ signs when they begin dating, after marriage women continue to use the female signs with girls and women.

 

Time ______ (328 words)

 

1. Sign language _______.  

(a) is only used in the deaf communities

(b) serves as the language for the hearing people only

(c) is one of the primary means of communication by hearing

(d) is one of the most important modalities conveying language

2. Which of the following statements about Plains Indian Sign Talk is TRUE?

(a) It was used by the deaf people in the Plains in the United States during the 19th century.

(b) It was used by the hearing people in the plains in the United States during the 18th century.

(c) It was a means of communication by the Native Americans in the plains who spoke different languages.

(d) It was a sign language used by all Indians in America who didn’t know English.

3. English, Navajo, BSL, and ASL constitute four distinct languages because _______.

(a) they share the signed modality

(b) they share a speech modality

(c) they share a writing modality

(d) they share neither a signed modality nor a speech modality

4. Examples of _______ are given to show that sign languages exhibit the same types of variation as spoken languages do.

(a) distinct dialects    

(b) different systems of meanings

(c) large vocabularies

(d) complicated grammatical structures

5. The proper title for this passage is: _______.

(a) Variation of Sign Languages

(b) Introduction to Sign Language

(c) Sign Language and Deaf Education

(d) Sign Languages and Spoken Languages

 

Passage Two

In American culture, certain colors send certain messages. Black is considered morbid, dark, and mysterious. In fact, one of our allusions is to “white hats” (the good guys) and “black hats” (the bad). Red suggests exuberance, energy, and even rage. Green and blue are “cool” colors, or are associated with the environment. Green also symbolizes jealousy. Pink is considered feminine. And so it goes.

 

The same is true outside the United States — same in the sense that colors convey messages, but not necessarily the same messages. For example:

 

Green is the national color of Egypt, but it should not be used for packages.

 

The French, Dutch, and Swedes associate green with cosmetics and toiletries.

 

In the Orient, green suggests exuberance, but when agriculturalist Steve Renk visited northern China and distributed green baseball caps, he found that men refused to wear them. The reason? In that region, when a man wore a green hat, it advertised that his wife or sister was a prostitute.

 

Purple is the color of death and funerals in Brazil and Mexico. And yellow marigolds are the cemetery flower in Mexico, meaning they are presented only for decorations at cemeteries.

 

White is the color of death and rebirth in Japan, so it may be seen at both funerals and weddings.

 

In the Orient, bright red envelopes are used to present gifts of money.

 

White can represent purity and is therefore the predominant color in the United States for wedding dresses; however, in India, bright red or yellow fabrics are preferred.

Time ______ (258 words)

 

6. In American culture, red suggests all of the following EXCEPT _______.

(a) luxuriant growth  

(b) vigor    

(c) being feminine

(d) furious anger

7. _______ flowers are considered most appropriate for funerals in Brazil and Mexico.

(a) White   

(b) Black   

(c) Purple  

(d) Yellow

8. In the Orient, a man wearing a green hat signifies that he has _______.

(a) a sister  

(b) an unfaithful wife

(c) a faithful wife     

(d) an inexperienced sister

9. White is not the right color for brides in _______.

(a) Japan    

(b) China   

(c) America

(d) India

10. The main idea of the passage is that _______.

(a) meanings associated with specific colors vary from culture to culture

(b) there is a great difference in understanding colors between the west and the east

(c) certain colors send different messages in American culture and in Chinese culture

(d) it is important to know what associations colors have in a culture

 

Passage Three

Laura B. lived in Japan as a young girl because her father, an American, had been assigned there by his American employer. Laura had a young Japanese girl named Miko as a live-in companion. On the occasion of her mother’s birthday, Laura’s father presented her mother with a beautiful ring decorated with four exquisite pearls. When Miko saw the gift, she turned white and explained, “You must not accept that. Four is an unlucky number. It means death.” Laura’s family smiled and brushed off Miko’s advice. Several days later, they found the ring was missing one of its pearls. When they asked Miko, she confessed that she had removed it because she simply could not allow Laura’s mother to wear such a deadly omen.

 

This true story dramatizes how powerful some superstitions can be among some cultures. In Japan, as well as in China and Korea, the word shi means “four,” but it also means “death.” So, among Orientals, the relationship between the two meanings is strong.

At the opposite end of the superstition scale stands the number eight. In the Orient, the word for eight is pronounced faat, which means “prosper.” There are eight emblems in both Confucianism and Buddhism. Author Angi Ma Wong, who is also a marketing consultant in California, explains that many Chinese businesses flock to the San Gabriel Valley of southern California because the area code there is 818.

 

Among the Chinese, the word for nine is popular because it is associated with dragons and longevity. In Japan, however, the number nine is associated with suffering, so it has bad symbolism there.

 

Throughout much of Europe, as in the United States, the number thirteen represents bad luck. And when presenting flowers in Europe, always give an odd number of blooms (but not thirteen), because an even number is considered unlucky.

 

If you consider this strange, remember that many Christians in the United States recoil at the number 666, since it is wisely believed to represent the Devil.

 

Finally, bear in mind that even the numbers on our calendar are not necessarily followed universally. In the Orient, the Lunar calendar dictates when one of the most celebrated holidays is held, the Chinese New Year.

Time ______ (368 words)

 

11. Miko removed one of the four pearls from the ring because _______.

(a) the pearl is so exquisite

(b) she likes it very much

(c) four signifies death in Japan

(d) three is a lucky number in Japan

12. According to the passage, the word “four” has a connotation of death in all the following countries EXCEPT _______.

(a) Japan  

(b) China 

(c) America

(d) Korea

13. Chinese businesses moved in large numbers to the San Gabriel Valley because _______.

(a) it lies in southern California where the traffic is convenient

(b) the area code there seems auspicious

(c) there are a lot of chances to make a great fortune

(d) their products are well received there

14. The number _______ is considered unlucky in the U.S.A.

(a) 333     

(b) 555    

(c) 666     

(d) 888

15.The passage discusses _______.

(a) messages conveyed by numbers in different countries

(b) lucky and unlucky numbers

(c) Miko’s strange behavior

(d) the power of superstition

 

Keys

15       d c d a b  

610     c c b d a

1115    c c b c a

中级阅读(1) Unit 2 补充练习 Fast reading exercises - Crystal - 微笑的博客

 

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